Use of agglutination with antiserum against lateral flagella (H-agglutination) for the identification of Vibrio parahaemolyticus was studied. Sucrose-negative bacteria were isolated from seawater, and their characterization was carried out by traditional biological tests and slide agglutination with antiserum specific to lateral flagella of V. parahaemolyticus. Of 135 strains isolated, 78 were identified as V. parahaemolyticus by biological tests and were agglutinated with the above serum. Fifty-five strains did not agglutinate with the serum, and their biological characteristics were different from those of V. parahaemolyticus. Two strains also differed from V. parahaemolyticus in some biological characteristics but agglutinated with the antiserum. All clinically isolated V. parahaemolyticus strains also agglutinated with the above serum. These results suggest that our serological method is useful for the identification of V. parahaemolyticus, especially for samples in which there are many organisms related to V. parahaemolyticus, because many biological tests can be omitted
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