Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection induces expression of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) provirus in the chronically infected T-cell line ACH-2. The HSV-1-mediated induction correlates with the appearance of two NF-kappa B-specific proteins of 55 and 85 kDa in the nucleus and with the binding of 50-kDa nuclear protein to the LBP-1 binding site of the untranslated leader sequence of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat. The HSV-1-induced LBP-1 binding protein, designated HLP-1, is present exclusively in HSV-1-infected, but not in phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate- or tumor necrosis factor alpha-treated ACH-2 cells. Both the NF-kappa B and LBP-1 target sequences, when inserted either alone or together 5' of a heterologous minimal promoter (thymidine kinase), confer inducibility by HSV-1 infection in a transient transfection assay. Thus, it appears that the HSV-1-mediated activation of HIV-1 provirus is brought about by the binding of both NF-kappa B and HLP-1 specific proteins to two distinct regions of HIV-1 long terminal repeat
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