A Study on the Determinates of Operation Efficiency and Profit for the Container Liners in Taiwan

Abstract

[[abstract]]國際海運業從1970年代開始,貨櫃船舶逐漸取代傳統之散裝貨船,歷經1980年代的蓬勃發展,至1990年貨櫃運輸競爭更加激烈,國際貨櫃航商間的合作,以航線聯營(Joint Venture)與合併(Merge)等方式,降低營運成本,以便增加國際間的競爭優勢。在實務上,航商間的競爭主要集中在兩個方面:一是滿足顧客的需求;二是維持成本的競爭優勢。在滿足顧客需求方面,國籍貨櫃航商在面對競爭激烈的國際市場,以貨物及時運送(Just-in-Time)的方式,送達顧客手上。貨主選擇航商考慮因素包括,船舶效率、裝載能力、服務可靠性、航速等方面,其中船舶效率將是影響貨主選擇上的關鍵因素;在維持成本競爭優勢方面,國籍貨櫃航商較高之容量使用率(Capacity Utilization),將是維持成本競爭優勢重要因素。在航運造船技術也不斷推陳出新下,船舶大型化已成為海上貨櫃運輸的趨勢。在供給遠超過需求的情形下,市場呈現超額容量的壓力,航商勢必要增加它的實際產出,或者減少投入船舶艙位容量,來提升國籍貨櫃航商的容量使用率(Capacity Utilization)。在經營效率的觀點上,減少投入船舶艙位容量是否真能使國籍貨櫃船公司營運效率達到長期最適則須進一部探討。 研究實證結果顯示,在短期容量使用率,判斷航商之攬貨能力是否達成最適之產量,而長期容量使用率,判斷航商是否增加或者減少投入船舶艙位容量,達成長期最適之規模經濟。實證結果顯示萬海航運在長短期之容量使用率上,其艙位使用效率值皆優於其他三家航商。本研究以產業經濟學領域中對於產業結構(Structure)透過市場行為(Conduct)影響市場績效(Performance)的S-C-P理論為背景,建構獲利影響之因素。研究結果發現如下:短期之經營效率值、經濟成長率即規模經濟與航商之獲利呈顯著正向關係;長期之經營效率值、匯率與航商之獲利呈負向關係。價格水準、燃油價格與航商之獲利呈正向關係。[[abstract]]From 1970,the international sea transportation business has replaced the traditional bulk goods ships for container ships. Following the rising and flourishing period in 1980s, the container liners compete more and more intensely in the 1990s. From then on, the international container liners cooperates with each other, cutting down their cost of operation and increasing the capability of international competition through the ways of joint venture and merge. In practice, the competition between different container liners mainly relies in two aspects—one is the fulfillment of the requirement of clients, the other is the maintaining of the advantageous position through controlled capital spending. In order to satisfy the demand of clients, the domestic container ship corps adopts the way of “just-in-time” shipment when dealing with the intensely competing international market. When choosing the shipment corps, the owner of goods takes the following facts in concerns--the efficiency of the ship, the capability of shipment, the credibility of service as well as the speed of the ship. Among them, the efficiency of the ship is the most fundamental facts concerned by the owners of cargo. In the aspect of maintaining advantage of cutting budget, the higher efficiency in capacity utilization is a critical fact concerned by domestic container ship industry. As the technology of shipbuilding improves, the large-scale ship model has become the main trend in the container transportation business. In the situation when demand is unable to meet the supply, there is the pressure of capability above quota in the market, asking the business to increase their practical outputs or decreasing the capability of shipping space in order to improve the capacity utilization of domestic container ship industry. From the points of view considering operation efficiency, whether or not the measure to decrease the capability of shipping space can reach the goal of maintaining the long-term advantage of the shipment business is still need further discussion. The result of research reveals the fact that in the short-term capacity utilization, one should concern whether the corps can take sufficient orders or not to keep the most profitable outlets. In the long-term capacity utilization, one should consider whether or not the corps increase or decrease the capability of shipping space to obtain the most profitable economic scale. The research fact reveals that Wan-Hai shipping corps occupies the advantage in long or short-term capacity utilization and efficiency of shipping space utilization superior than those of other three counterparts. Based on the S-C-P theory of industry structure affects the market performance by conducting market actions, this research has formulated some key factors affecting the profit margin. Those factors are as follows—the short-term efficiency ratio of operation, the economic increasing rates and scale are in direct proportion with the profit gaining of shipping industry, the long-term efficiency values of operation, exchange rate are in inverse proportion as well as the profit gaining and the price level, price of fuel are in direct ratio with profit gaining

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This paper was published in FirstTech Institutional Repository.

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