Spirochetes isolated from three species of wild mice, Apodemus speciosus, Apodemus argenteus, and Eothenomys smithi, which were caught on Honshu, Japan, were characterized on the bases of protein profiles, reactivities with monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), and DNA homology values. All the isolates reacted with MAb O1441b, which is specific for Borrelia japonica, but not with MAb P62, which is specific for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia garinii, and Borrelia afzelii. The DNA relatedness of four representatives isolates to strain HO14, a type strain of B. japonica, was 83 to 88%. From these findings, the spirochetes were identified as B. japonica
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