The major constraint in grouper farming is the shortage and irregular availability of fingerlings trom the wild at the\ud right time. For a regular supply of sufficient quantity of hatchery-produced seeds, healthy broodstock is highly\ud essential. Many of the culturable species of groupers arc protogynous hermaphrodites. They mature initially as\ud females and latcr become males; in nature this transfonnation would take a very long time. Broodstock can either be\ud caught from the wild or can be developed by rearing fingerlings in captivity
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