Aquaculture has been practiced in some societies for many centuries. However, the transition from low-input,\ud pond-based capture system to more intensive and industrialized method has been done only during the last few\ud decades. Contrary to terrestrial agriculture systems, aquaculture is a new industry with limited scientific knowledge.\ud This is especially true for shrimp aquaculture, the fast growing and most valued food production systems of the world.\ud Shrimp aquaculture has been developed without sufficient understanding of basic physiology of species of interest.\ud Physiology is a powerful science, which has potential to contribute positively for the development and growth of\ud aquaculture. The more understanding of the physiological processes that underlie crop performance leads to the\ud improvement and optimization of aquaculture production. Further, as knowledge of physiological process expands,\ud desirable traits can be identified, and that can be utilized as selection criteria. Incorporation of physiological traits for\ud selection in breeding programme, thus, would help to achieve results more quickly and efficiently than selecting for\ud yield performance alone. This lecture note provides an overview of various aspects of reproductive physiology that\ud have direct application in optimizing aquaculture production. The possibilities of selecting physiological traits in breeding\ud programme have also been discussed
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