A vector (pKMP10) capable of Campbell-like integration into the Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis LM0230 chromosome via homologous recombination with chromosomal IS981 sequences was constructed from the replication region of lactococcal plasmid pSK11L, an internal fragment of IS981, and the erythromycin resistance gene and Escherichia coli replication origin of pVA891. The pSK11L replication region is temperature sensitive for maintenance in L. lactis subsp. lactis LM0230, resulting in loss of unintegrated pKMP10 during growth at greater than 37 degrees C. pKMP10 integrants made up 8 to 75% of LM0230(pKMP10) erythromycin-resistant cells following successive growth at 25 degrees C with selection, 39 degrees C without selection, and 39 degrees C with selection. pKMP10 integrants were also isolated from L. lactis subsp. lactis MG1363(pKMP10) but at a 10-fold-lower frequency (4%). No integrants were isolated form L. lactis subsp. lactis MMS368(pKMP10) (a Rec-deficient strain) or LM0230(pKMP1-E) (the corresponding plasmid lacking the IS981 fragment). Examination of 17 LM0230 integrants by Southern hybridization revealed pKMP10 integration into five different chromosomal sites. Four of the integration sites appeared to be chromosomal IS981 sequences, while one was an uncharacterized chromosomal sequence. The four IS981 integrants seemed to have pKMP10 integrated in a tandem repeat structure of undetermined length. Integrated pKMP10 was more stable (0 to 2% plasmid loss) than unintegrated pKMP10 (100% plasmid loss) when grown for 100 generations at 32 degrees C without selection
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