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Identification of the early actin-rearrangement-inducing factor gene, arif-1, from Autographa californica multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus.

By R Roncarati and D Knebel-Mörsdorf


In response to Autographa californica multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV) infection, a sequential rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton occurs. Previous studies suggest that the penetration of nucleocapsids induces early actin cables followed by further changes of the actin cytoskeleton which depend on early viral gene expression. By transfection of a plasmid library into Trichoplusia ni TN-368 cells, we have identified an early viral gene, designated arif-1, that is able to induce actin rearrangement. The determination of the nucleotide sequence of arif-1 revealed one open reading frame potentially encoding a gene product of 45 kDa with no significant sequence homology to known proteins. After expression of arif-1 in transfected cells, the induced actin rearrangement, visualized by fluorescence microscopy, was comparable to the changes of the actin cytoskeleton at 3 to 7 h postinfection. These changes are based on early viral gene expression during the infection cycle. A causal link between arif-1 expression and actin rearrangement in infected cells is suggested by infection studies with the AcMNPV/Spodoptera frugiperda MNPV hybrid, which carries a deletion in the arif-1 gene. In transfection experiments the presence of the known viral transactivator IE1 was required in addition to ARIF-1 to induce actin rearrangement. IE1 was needed for promoter activation of the arif-1 gene, since arif-1 expression under the control of the early pe38 promoter was sufficient to induce actin rearrangement in transfected cells. Primer extension analyses showed that the arif-1 gene is transcribed only during the early phase of AcMNPV infection in T. ni TN-368 cells. There was a delay of about 1 h compared to ie1 transcription, which is in agreement with the assumption that IE1 transactivates the arif-1 promoter during infection

Topics: Research Article
Year: 1997
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Provided by: PubMed Central
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