Two primary cell targets for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in vivo are CD4+ T lymphocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). HIV-1 encodes envelope glycoproteins which mediate virus entry into these cells. We have utilized infected and radiolabelled primary peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) and MDM cultures to examine the biochemical and antigenic properties of the HIV-1 envelope produced in these two cell types. The gp120 produced in MDM migrates as a broad, diffuse band in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gels compared with that of the more homogeneous gp120 released from PBMCs. Glycosidase analyses indicated that the diffuse appearance of the MDM gp120 is due to the presence of asparagine-linked carbohydrates containing lactosaminoglycans, a modification not observed with the gp120 produced in PBMCs. Neutralization experiments, using isogeneic PBMC and MDM-derived macrophage-tropic HIV-1 isolates, indicate that 8- to 10-fold more neutralizing antibody, directed against the viral envelope, is required to block virus produced from MDM. These results demonstrate that HIV-1 released from infected PBMC and MDM cultures differs in its biochemical and antigenic properties
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