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Pharmacodynamics of levofloxacin, ofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin, alone and in combination with rifampin, against methicillin-susceptible and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus in an in vitro infection model.

By S L Kang, M J Rybak, B J McGrath, G W Kaatz and S M Seo


The pharmacodynamic properties of levofloxacin (an optically active isomer of ofloxacin), ofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin, alone and in combination with rifampin, were evaluated over 24 to 48 h against clinical isolates of methicillin-susceptible and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA 1199 and MRSA 494, respectively) in an in vitro infection model. The incidence of the emergence of resistance among the test strains was also determined. The fluoroquinolones were administered to simulate dosage regimens of 200 mg, 400 mg given intravenously (i.v.) every 12 h (q12h), and 400 and 800 mg given i.v. q24h. Rifampin was dosed at 600 mg i.v. q24h. Although the MICs and MBCs of the quinolones were similar (< or = 0.49 microgram/ml), levofloxacin was the most potent agent in time-kill studies on the basis of the time required to achieve a 99.9% reduction in the number of log10 CFU per milliliter (e.g., with the regimen of levofloxacin [400 mg q24h, 6.5 h] versus ofloxacin [12.5 h], P < 0.024, and levofloxacin versus ciprofloxacin [6.5 versus 9.0 h], P < 0.0017) against MSSA 1199. The killing activity of levofloxacin was similar to that of ofloxacin against MRSA 494 (time to achieve a 99.9% reduction in the number of log10 CFU per milliliter, 11.1 versus 13.8 h, respectively). Levofloxacin and ofloxacin dosed once daily demonstrated greater bactericidal activity than when they were dosed twice daily against MSSA 1199. Resistance to levofloxacin or ofloxacin was not observed with any dosage regimen. Furthermore, resistance to ofloxacin was not detected when the half-life was reduced from 6 to 3 h. Regrowth and stable resistance (65-fold increase in the MIC for MSSA 1199; 16-fold increase in the MIC for MRSA 494) were noted within 24 h of exposure to ciprofloxacin at 200 mg q12h. Combination therapy with rifampin prevented the emergence of resistance to ciprofloxacin. Neither DNA gyrase alteration nor an energy-dependent efflux process mediated by the norA gene appeared to be responsible for the resistance observed. Our data suggest that with levofloxacin there is a more rapid onset of bactericidal activity than with ofloxacin or ciprofloxacin against MSSA 1199 and that the activity of levofloxacin is similar to that of ofloxacin but better than that of ciprofloxacin against MRSA 494. Resistance was noted only after exposure to the low dose of ciprofloxacin. Resistance to ofloxacin did not develop even when the pharmacokinetics of the drug were set to equal those of ciprofloxacin, suggesting that ofloxacin differs from ciprofloxacin irrespective of time of exposure. The resistance to ciprofloxacin that developed in our vitro model may be mediated by the cfx-ofx locus, which has been shown to be associated with low-level fluoroquinolone resistance. Overall, levofloxacin demonstrated potent bactericidal activity against S. aureus, without the emergence of resistance in our infection model. Quinolones dosed once daily were more effective than equivalent dosages administered twice daily. The addition of rifampin was not synergistic but prevented the emergence of ciprofloxacin resistance

Topics: Research Article
Year: 1994
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Provided by: PubMed Central
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