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Development of resistance to cephalosporins in clinical strains of Citrobacter spp.

By T D Gootz, D B Jackson and J C Sherris


The predominant beta-lactam antibiogram of Citrobacter freundii resembles that of Enterobacter cloacae in demonstrating resistance to cephalothin and cefoxitin with susceptibility to the newer cephalosporins. Four representative strains of C. freundii were reversibly induced to high-level beta-lactamase production by cefoxitin, and mutants with stable, high-level production were selected with cefamandole. The mutants were resistant to several second- and third-generation cephalosporins. Comparisons of isoelectric points and substrate profiles of beta-lactamases from wild-type, induced wild-type, and mutant organisms suggested a close relationship to those from E. cloacae and indicated that C. freundii mutants, like those of E. cloacae, were derepressed for production of beta-lactamase. One primary isolate of C. freundii resembled the mutants in all characteristics. In contrast, most strains of Citrobacter diversus were susceptible to all cephalosporins, and two representative strains showed neither inducible nor mutational resistance. Cefoxitin induction to enhanced beta-lactamase production was demonstrated in a cephalothin-resistant isolate, and a derepressed mutant was selected with cefotaxime. The beta-lactamase from this C. diversus strain differed substantially in substrate profile from that of E. cloacae and C. freundii

Topics: Research Article
Year: 1984
DOI identifier: 10.1128/aac.25.5.591
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Provided by: PubMed Central
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