Recently, ampicillin- and chloramphenicol-resistant strains of Haemophilus influenzae type b and multiply-resistant Salmonella strains have appeared in some areas of the world. Therefore, alternative drug therapy for infections caused by these organisms is being sought. We used cefuroxime to successfully treat five children with H. influenzae type b meningitis and two children with Salmonella meningitis. Four H. influenzae type b isolates and one Salmonella isolate were resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and cotrimoxazole. Each of the patients received 200 to 250 mg of cefuroxime per kg per day in four divided doses for 14 to 21 days. The concentrations of cefuroxime in cerebrospinal fluid at 2 h after intravenous 50-mg/kg doses were 6.4 +/- 1.7 (mean +/- standard deviation) and 3.6 +/- 2.2 micrograms/ml on days 2 and 14 of treatment, respectively. The level of drug in cerebrospinal fluid was 1.34 +/- 1.3 micrograms/ml in children without meningitis. The mean cefuroxime concentration in subdural fluid samples from each of three patients was 12.6, 15, and 25.2 micrograms/ml. Cefuroxime is recommended as an alternative drug for the treatment of H. influenzae type b meningitis, but additional information is necessary before cefuroxime can be recommended for therapy of Salmonella meningitis
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