The concentrations of piperacillin in serum, bile, gallbladder wall, abdominal skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue were measured simultaneously at various times after the intravenous administration of a single 5-g dose to each of 14 patients undergoing biliary tract surgery. Piperacillin concentrated in the bile with peak levels exceeding 4,000 micrograms/ml. In a single patient with cystic duct obstruction, trace gallbladder bile piperacillin levels were measured. Gallbladder wall concentrations of piperacillin tended to be higher than corresponding serum concentrations, with a correlation observed between tissue values and the degree of acute gallbladder inflammation and gallbladder bile piperacillin concentrations. Mean peak muscle and adipose tissue piperacillin concentrations of 31 and 27 micrograms/g, respectively, were reached at between 2 and 3 h after the start of infusion. These concentrations exceeded the minimum inhibitory concentration for a majority of susceptible organisms. A single 5-g dose of piperacillin achieved therapeutic levels in gallbladder wall, intraabdominal skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue and concentrated in the bile of patients with patent biliary tracts
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