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Risk factors for esophageal cancer: Emphasis on infectious agents

By H. El-Zimaity, V. Di Pilato, M. N. Ringressi, I. Brcic, S. Rajendra, R. Langer, B. Dislich, M. Tripathi, M. Guindi and R. Riddell

Abstract

Risk factors for esophageal cancer include genetic factors (such as tylosis) and infectious agents. A variety of organisms have been implicated in esophageal carcinogenesis, either directly or indirectly. In this review, we explore the normal esophageal flora and how it may be controlled, and also the variety of organisms that may affect esophageal carcinogenesis, either directly or indirectly. The organisms with potential direct effects in squamous cell carcinoma include human papillomavirus (HPV), Epstein–Barr virus, and polyoma viruses. Interestingly, HPV is now implicated in esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), not in its initiation but in the development of dysplasia, in which HPV33 in particular has been associated. Indirectly, Helicobacter pylori has been associated with EAC by, initially, causing increased acid secretion that increases acid reflux, and by reducing lower esophageal sphincter pressure, which increases gastroesophageal reflux; the latter increases the risk of Barrett’s esophagus, and hence EAC. Conversely, subsequent atrophic gastritis may normalize that risk

Topics: Carcinoma, Esophagus, Infection, Microbiota
Publisher: 'Wiley'
Year: 2018
DOI identifier: 10.1111/nyas.13858
OAI identifier: oai:iris.unige.it:11567/1015651
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