Unfolding the human milk microbiome landscape in the omicsera

Abstract

Studies conducted in the last years have demonstrated that human milk represents a continuous supply of beneficial bacteria to the infant gut, which contribute to the maturation of the digestive and immune functions in the developing infant. Nevertheless, the origin of bacterial populations in milk is not fully understood yet and they have been proposed to originate from maternal skin, infant's mouth, and (or) endogenously, from the maternal digestive tract through a mechanism involving immune cells. Understanding the composition, functions and assembly of the human milk microbiota has important implications not only for the infant gut microbiota establishment, but also for the mammary health since dysbiosis in the milk bacteria may lead to mastitis. Besides, host, microbial, medical and environmental factors may affect the composition of the human milk microbiome, with implications for the mother-infant health. Application of both culture-dependent and -independent techniques to assess the milk microbiome faces some practical limitations but, together, have allowed providing novel and complementary views on its origin, composition and functioning as summarized in this minireview. In the next future, the application of the ultimate advances in next-generation sequencing and omics approaches, including culturomics, will allow a detailed and comprehensive understanding of the composition and functions of these microbial communities, including their interactions with other milk components, expanding the opportunities to design novel microbiome-based modulation strategies for this ecosystem.LR is a postdoctoral researcher supported by the Juan de la Cierva Postdoctoral Trainee Program of the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (MINECO; IJCI2015-23196). Our research in this field has been supported by the grant AGL2016-75476-R (Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness, Spain

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Last time updated on 24/05/2020

This paper was published in Digital.CSIC.

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