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Pirfenidone Blocks the In Vitro and In Vivo Effects of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B

By Martha L. Hale, Solomon B. Margolin, Teresa Krakauer, Chad J. Roy and Bradley G. Stiles


Pirfenidone [5-methyl-1-phenyl-2-(1H)-pyridone] down-regulates expression of cytokines and other mediators involved in the onset and development of pulmonary fibrosis. Pirfenidone also inhibits production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) from macrophages incubated with endotoxin and protects mice against endotoxin shock. Pirfenidone's ability to reduce cytokine expression in these disorders led us to investigate the drug's effect on another cytokine anomaly, superantigen-induced shock. BALB/c mice were exposed to staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) either systemically or by aerosol and subsequently potentiated with a sublethal dose of lipopolysaccharide. In these experiments, pirfenidone given 2 to 4.25 h after SEB resulted in 80 to 100% survival versus only 0 to 10% survival among untreated control animals. Relative to serum cytokine levels from controls given toxin but no drug, there was a 35 to 80% decrease in TNF-α, interleukin 1, and other proinflammatory cytokines. In vitro experiments with human peripheral blood lymphocytes revealed that pirfenidone reduced SEB-induced cytokine levels 50 to 80% and inhibited 95% of SEB-induced T-cell proliferation. Overall, these studies demonstrated the potential utility of pirfenidone as a therapeutic against septic shock and the biological effects of SEB

Topics: Host Response and Inflammation
Publisher: American Society for Microbiology
Year: 2002
DOI identifier: 10.1128/IAI.70.6.2989-2994.2002
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Provided by: PubMed Central
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