The regulator of G protein signaling (RGS)-9-1⋅Gβ5 complex forms the GTPase accelerating protein for Gαt in vertebrate photoreceptors. Although the complex is soluble when expressed in vitro, extraction of the endogenous protein from membranes requires detergents. The detergent extracts contain a complex of RGS9-1, Gβ5, Gαt, and a 25-kDa phosphoprotein, R9AP (RGS9-1-Anchor Protein). R9AP is encoded by one intronless gene in both human and mouse. Full or partial cDNA or genomic clones were obtained from mice, cattle, human, zebrafish, and Xenopus laevis. R9AP mRNA was detected only in the retina, and the protein only in photoreceptors. R9AP binds to the N-terminal domain of RGS9-1, and anchors it to the disk membrane via a C-terminal transmembrane helix
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