Self-assembly of colloidal spheres onto patterned (e.g., lithographically modified ) substrates is a promising approach to prepare complex 3D geometries (e.g., assemble colloidal spheres into square pyramidal shapes) that can not be produced by self-assembly of colloidal spheres on flat substrates. Generally self-assembly alone is restricted to the formation of close-packed 2D and 3D arrays of colloidal particles and does not lead to more complex lattice types and geometries. A certain degree of control over colloidal self-assembly has been achieved through external electric or intense optical fields and by manipulating the interaction potential. Here we demonstrate a simple scheme that combines two self-assembly steps and electrochemical deposition to produce patterns of ordered arrays of spheres with controlled spacing and eventually isolated metallic arrays of spherical cavities
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