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Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Tat Protein Activates Transcription Factor NF-κB through the Cellular Interferon-Inducible, Double-Stranded RNA-Dependent Protein Kinase, PKR

By Francesca Demarchi, Maria Ines Gutierrez and Mauro Giacca


The transactivator protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) (Tat) is a powerful activator of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), acting through degradation of the inhibitor IκB-α (F. Demarchi, F. d’Adda di Fagagna, A. Falaschi, and M. Giacca, J. Virol. 70:4427–4437, 1996). Here, we show that this activity of Tat requires the function of the cellular interferon-inducible protein kinase PKR. Tat-mediated NF-κB activation and transcriptional induction of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat were impaired in murine cells in which the PKR gene was knocked out. Both functions were restored by cotransfection of Tat with the cDNA for PKR. Expression of a dominant-negative mutant of PKR specifically reduced the levels of Tat transactivation in different human cell types. Activation of NF-κB by Tat required integrity of the basic domain of Tat; previous studies have indicated that this domain is necessary for specific Tat-PKR interaction

Topics: Replication
Publisher: American Society for Microbiology
Year: 1999
OAI identifier:
Provided by: PubMed Central
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