Location of Repository

An examination of the influence on carer wellbeing of work-related, care-related and personal factors

By C. Lyonette and L. Yardley


This paper reports an analysis of the relative influence of work-related, care-related and personal factors on carer outcomes among 204 working female carers. To examine the importance of personal factors, the ‘Motivations in Elder Care Scale’ (MECS) and the ‘Relationships in Elder Care Scale’ (RECS) were developed. In a qualitative pilot study, interviews with working-age carers were drawn on to form the items for inclusion. The MECS included items for external pressures to care, e.g. guilt, the older person's expectation of care, and perceived disapproval of others, and for internal desires to adopt the caring role, e.g. carer's resistance to other forms of care, living up to one's principles and caring nature. Psychometric tests revealed that two subscales had greater reliability, the EXMECS (extrinsic motivations to care) and the INMECS (intrinsic motivations). The RECS included both positive items, e.g. respect, admiration for the older person, and lack of generational differences, and negative relationship items, e.g. struggle for power, and older person's resistance to caring efforts, and had good reliability. Measures of carer stress and carer satisfaction were included as outcome variables. Multiple regression analyses showed that the RECS and the MECS were the most significant predictors of carer outcomes. Greater extrinsic motivations to care and poorer quality of the relationship with the older person were the most significant predictors of carer stress. Better relationship quality and greater intrinsic motivations to care were the most significant predictors of carer satisfaction

Topics: HT, R1, BF
Year: 2003
OAI identifier: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:18453
Provided by: e-Prints Soton

Suggested articles



  1. (1994). Acquiring the family eldercare role: influence on female employment adaptation.
  2. (2003). Address for correspondence:
  3. (1995). Analysis of the impact of motherdaughter relationships on the commitment to caregiving.
  4. (1990). and the relationship with the care recipient 505Orodenker,
  5. (1994). Aspects of eldercare that place employees at risk.
  6. (1993). Attachment and obligation as daughters’ motives for caregiving behaviour and subsequent effect on subjective burden.
  7. (1993). Balancing Work and Caregiving for Children, Adults and Elders. Family Caregiver Application Series,
  8. (1995). Binding ties: closeness and conflict in adult children’s caregiving relationships.
  9. (1986). Caregiver well-being: a multidimensional examination of family caregivers of demented adults.
  10. (1997). Caregiving and employment: the impact of workplace characteristics on role strain.
  11. (2002). Caregiving as a dyadic process: perspectives from caregiver and receiver.
  12. (2002). Caregiving relationships: two sides to the story.
  13. (1999). Children-in-law in caregiving families.
  14. (1999). Combining employment and caregiving: an intricate juggling act.
  15. (1992). Combining paid work with eldercare: the implications for social policy.
  16. (1999). Contributors to and mediators of psychological well-being for informal caregivers.
  17. (1996). Daughters and caregiving: taking care of our own.
  18. (1991). Employment and caregiver strain: an integrative model.
  19. (1995). Family Caregiving in an Aging Society: Policy Perspectives. Sage,
  20. (1977). Filial responsibility expectations and morale among aged parents.
  21. (1995). Full-time employees as caregivers to the elderly.
  22. (1991). Gender and Later Life.
  23. (1990). Gender differences in spouse caregiver strain: socialization and role expectations.
  24. (1998). In the middle: parental caregiving in the context of other roles.
  25. (1992). Informal caregiving of elderly people: a European review.
  26. (1989). Interactions between women and their elderly parents: constraints of daughters’ employment.
  27. (1999). Measures of perceived work characteristics for health services research: test of a measurement model and normative data.
  28. (1989). Measuring caregiving appraisal.
  29. (1996). Motivating factors, exchange patterns, and reciprocity among caregivers of parents with and without dementia.
  30. (1988). Motivators and inhibitors of attitudes of filial obligation toward aging parents.
  31. (1990). Mutuality and preparedness as predictors of caregiver role strain.
  32. (1995). Office of Population Censuses and Surveys
  33. (1989). Other roles of caregivers: competing responsibilities or supportive resources?
  34. (2002). Outcomes of disagreement between carer and care-receiver over activities of daily living.
  35. (1995). Parent caregivers: a comparison of employed and not employed daughters.
  36. (1982). Parent-child relations. In
  37. (1992). Psychometric investigation of a belief system: caregiving to the chronically ill parent.
  38. (1998). Quality of the caregiver-care recipient relationship: does it offset negative consequences of caregiving for family caregivers?
  39. (1983). Reciprocity and affection: past influences on current caregiving.
  40. (1993). Sources of emotional strain among the oldest caregivers.
  41. (1995). Spillover between daughters’ roles as caregiver and wife: interference or enhancement?
  42. (1983). Strain among caregivers: a study of experience in the United States.
  43. (1992). The benefits and costs of caregiving and care receiving for daughters and mothers.
  44. (1999). The Employment of Those Undertaking Informal Care: A Longitudinal Analysis. Social Policy Research Unit,
  45. (1997). The interplay of work and caregiving: relationships between role satisfaction, role involvement, and caregivers’ well-being.
  46. (1992). The prevalence of elder care responsibilities among the work force population: response bias among a group of cross-sectional surveys.
  47. (1990). The relationship between caregiving and employment: a study of stress in employed and unemployed caregivers of elderly persons.
  48. (1998). The role of religion/spirituality in coping with caregiving for disabled elders.
  49. (1997). The stress of caring for a parent: effects of the elder’s impairment on an employed, adult child.
  50. (1996). The transitions of caregiving: subjective and objective definitions.
  51. (1992). Through a Looking Glass Darkly: Community Care and Elderly People. King’s Fund Institute,
  52. (1998). Transforming Qualitative Information: Thematic Analysis and Code Development.
  53. (1997). Where two roles intersect: spillover between parent care and employment.
  54. (1992). Women as family caregivers: why do they care?
  55. (1997). Women with multiple roles: the emotional impact of caring for ageing parents.
  56. (1997). Working people who also care for the elderly.

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.