Bacteriocin production was determined for 218 Enterococcus isolates (Enterococcus faecalis  and E. faecium ) obtained from different origins (human clinical samples , human fecal samples , sewage , and chicken samples ) and showing different vancomycin susceptibility patterns (vancomycin resistant, all of them vanA positive , and vancomycin susceptible ). All enterococcal isolates were randomly selected except for the vancomycin-resistant ones. A total of 33 isolates of eight different bacterial genera were used as indicators for bacteriocin production. Forty-seven percent of the analyzed enterococcal isolates were bacteriocin producers (80.6% of E. faecalis and 21.6% of E. faecium isolates). The percentage of bacteriocin producers was higher among human clinical isolates (63.2%, 81.8% of vancomycin-resistant isolates and 60.5% of vancomycin-susceptible ones) than among isolates from the other origins (28 to 39.3%). Only one out of the 15 vancomycin-resistant isolates from human fecal samples was a bacteriocin producer, while 44.4% of fecal vancomycin-susceptible isolates were. The bacteriocin produced by the vanA-containing E. faecium strain RC714, named bacteriocin RC714, was further characterized. This bacteriocin activity was cotransferred together with the vanA genetic determinant to E. faecalis strain JH2-2. Bacteriocin RC714 was purified to homogeneity and its primary structure was determined by amino acid sequencing, showing an identity of 88% and a similarity of 92% with the previously described bacteriocin 31 from E. faecalis YI717. The presence of five different amino acids in bacteriocin RC714 suggest that this could be a new bacteriocin. The results obtained suggest that the epidemiology of vancomycin resistance may be influenced by different factors, including bacteriocin production
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