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Cortical cell death induced by IL-1 is mediated via actions in the hypothalamus of the rat

By Stuart M. Allan, Lisa C. Parker, Barry Collins, Ralph Davies, Giamal N. Luheshi and Nancy J. Rothwell

Abstract

The cytokine IL-1 mediates diverse forms of neurodegeneration, but its mechanism of action is unknown. We have demonstrated previously that exogenous and endogenous IL-1 acts specifically in the rat striatum to dramatically enhance ischemic and excitotoxic brain damage and cause extensive cortical injury. Here we tested the hypothesis that this distant effect of IL-1 is mediated through polysynaptic striatal outputs to the cortex via the hypothalamus. We show that IL-1β injected into the rat striatum with the excitotoxin α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (S-AMPA) caused increased expression of IL-1β (mRNA and protein) mainly in the cortex where maximum injury occurs. Marked increases in IL-1β mRNA and protein were also observed in the hypothalamus. S-AMPA, injected alone into the striatum, caused only localized damage, but administration of IL-1β into either the striatum or the lateral hypothalamus immediately after striatal S-AMPA resulted in widespread cell loss throughout the ipsilateral cortex. Finally we showed that the cortical cell death produced by striatal coinjection of S-AMPA and IL-1β was significantly reduced by administration of the IL-1 receptor antagonist into the lateral hypothalamus. These data suggest that IL-1β can act in the hypothalamus to modify cell viability in the cortex. We conclude that IL-1-dependent pathways project from the striatum to the cortex via the hypothalamus and lead to cortical injury, and that these may contribute to a number of human neurological conditions including stroke and head trauma

Topics: Biological Sciences
Publisher: The National Academy of Sciences
Year: 2000
OAI identifier: oai:pubmedcentral.nih.gov:25871
Provided by: PubMed Central
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