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The Small M(r) Ras-like GTPase Rap1 and the Phospholipase C Pathway Act to Regulate Phagocytosis in Dictyostelium discoideum

By David J. Seastone, Linyi Zhang, Greg Buczynski, Patrick Rebstein, Gerald Weeks, George Spiegelman and James Cardelli

Abstract

The function of the small-M(r) Ras-like GTPase Rap1 remains largely unknown, but this protein has been demonstrated to regulate cortical actin-based morphologic changes in Dictyostelium and the oxidative burst in mammalian neutrophils. To test whether Rap1 regulates phagocytosis, we biochemically analyzed cell lines that conditionally and modestly overexpressed wild-type [Rap1 WT(+)], constitutively active [Rap1 G12T(+)], and dominant negative [Rap1 S17N(+)] forms of D. discoideum Rap1. The rates of phagocytosis of bacteria and latex beads were significantly higher in Rap1 WT(+) and Rap1 G12T(+) cells and were reduced in Rap1 S17N(+) cells. The addition of inhibitors of protein kinase A, protein kinase G, protein tyrosine kinase, or phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase did not affect phagocytosis rates in wild-type cells. In contrast, the addition of U73122 (a phospholipase C inhibitor), calphostin C (a protein kinase C inhibitor), and BAPTA-AM (an intracellular Ca(2+) chelator) reduced phagocytosis rates by 90, 50, and 65%, respectively, suggesting both arms of the phospholipase C signaling pathways played a role in this process. Other protein kinase C–specific inhibitors, such as chelerythrine and bisindolylmaleimide I, did not reduce phagocytosis rates in control cells, suggesting calphostin C was affecting phagocytosis by interfering with a protein containing a diacylglycerol-binding domain. The addition of calphostin C did not reduce phagocytosis rates in Rap1 G12T(+) cells, suggesting that the putative diacylglycerol-binding protein acted upstream in a signaling pathway with Rap1. Surprisingly, macropinocytosis was significantly reduced in Rap1 WT(+) and Rap1 G12T(+) cells compared with control cells. Together our results suggest that Rap1 and Ca(2+) may act together to coordinate important early events regulating phagocytosis

Topics: Article
Publisher: The American Society for Cell Biology
Year: 1999
OAI identifier: oai:pubmedcentral.nih.gov:25176
Provided by: PubMed Central
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