Thermocompression bonding joins substrates via a bonding layer. In this paper, silicon substrates were bonded using gold thin films. Experimental data on the effects of bonding pressure (30 to 120 MPa), temperature (260 and 300/spl deg/C), and time (2 to 90 min) on the bond toughness, measured using the four-point bend technique, are presented. In general, higher temperature and pressure lead to higher toughness bonds. Considerable variation in toughness was observed across specimens. Possible causes of the nonuniform bond quality were explored using finite element analysis. Simulation results showed that the mask layout contributed to the pressure nonuniformity applied across the wafer. Finally, some process guidelines for successful wafer-level bonding using gold thin films are presented
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