Location of Repository

Effect of nanotopogranphy in direct wafer bonding: modeling and measurements

By K.T. Turner, S.M. Spearing, W.A. Baylies, M. Robinson and R. Smythe


Nanotopography, which refers to surface height variations of tens to hundreds of nanometers that extend across millimeter-scale wavelengths, is a wafer geometry feature that may cause failure in direct wafer bonding processes. In this work, the nanotopography that is acceptable in direct bonding is determined using mechanics-based models that compare the elastic strain energy accumulated in the wafer during bonding to the work of adhesion. The modeling results are presented in the form of design maps that show acceptable magnitudes of height variations as a function of spatial wavelength. The influence of nanotopography in the bonding of prime grade silicon wafers is then assessed through a combination of measurements and analysis. Nanotopography measurements on three 150-mm silicon wafers, which were manufactured using different polishing processes, are reported and analyzed. Several different strategies are used to compare the wafers in terms of bondability and to assess the impact of the measured nanotopography in direct bonding. The measurement and analysis techniques reported here provide a general route for assessing the impact of nanotopography in direct bonding and can be employed when evaluating different processes to manufacture wafers for bonded devices or substrates

Topics: T1
Year: 2005
OAI identifier: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:23283
Provided by: e-Prints Soton

Suggested articles



  1. (1998). A model of wafer bonding by elastic accommodation,”
  2. (2003). Doubleside polishing—a technology for 300 mm wafer manufacturing,”
  3. (2003). Effect of nanoscale surface roughness on the bonding energy of direct-bonded silicon wafers,”
  4. (2002). High-speed noninterferometricnanotopographiccharacterizationofSiwafersurfaces,”Proc.
  5. (2003). Impact of filtering on nanotopography measurement of 300 mm silicon wafers,”
  6. (2001). Interferometric metrology of wafer nanotopography for advanced CMOS process integration,”
  7. (2001). M43-0301: Guide for reporting wafer nanotopography,” Semiconductor Equipment and Materials International,
  8. (2004). Mechanics of wafer bonding: Effect of wafer bow and etch patterns,”
  9. (2002). Modeling and mapping of nanotopography interactions with CMP,” in
  10. (2002). Modeling of direct wafer bonding: Effect of wafer bow and etch patterns,”
  11. (2000). Nanotopography effects on chemical mechanical polishing for shallow trench isolation,” in
  12. (2002). Nanotopography issues in shallow trench isolation
  13. (2001). Note: AE-008,
  14. (2002). On the impact of nanotopography of silicon wafers on post-cmp oxide layers,”
  15. (1999). Semiconductor Wafer Bonding: Science and Technology.
  16. Silicon wafer bonding: chemistry, elasto-mechanics, and manufacturing,” in
  17. (2001). Spectral analyses of the impact of nanotopography of silicon wafers on oxide chemical mechanical polishing,”
  18. (2002). Spectral analyses on pad dependency of nanotopography impact on oxide chemical mechanical polishing,”
  19. (1997). Standard practice for estimating the power spectral densityfunctionandrelated finishparametersfrom surfaceprofiledata,” ASTM Int.,
  20. (2002). The nanotopography effect of improved single-side polished wafer on oxide chemical mechanical polishing,”
  21. (1995). Thickness considerations in direct silicon wafer bonding,”
  22. (2000). Wafer flatness requirements for future technologies,”
  23. (2001). Wafer nanotopography effects on CMP: experimental validation of modeling methods,” in

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.