Background. For patients with advanced laryngeal cancer, a trial was designed to determine if chemotherapy alone, in patients achieving a complete histologic complete response after a single neoadjuvant cycle, was an effective treatment with less morbidity than concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Methods. Thirty-two patients with advanced laryngeal or hypopharyngeal cancer received 1 cycle of induction chemotherapy, and subsequent treatment was decided based on response. Results. A histologic complete response was achieved in 4 patients and were treated with chemotherapy alone. All 4 patients' cancer relapsed in the neck and required surgery and postoperative radiotherapy (RT). Twenty-five patients were treated with concomitant chemoradiation. Three patients were treated with surgery. Overall survival and disease-specific survival at 3 years were 68% and 78%, respectively. Conclusion. Chemotherapy alone is not feasible for long-term control of regional disease in patients with advanced laryngeal cancer even when they achieve a histologic complete response at the primary site. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 201
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