. The purpose of this study was: (1) to determine whether polishing standardized proximal root surfaces with dental floss, Superfloss, wood and plastic interdental cleaners, using a polishing paste, produces any significant change on root surface roughness; and (2) to determine the effectiveness of different number of strokes in polishing. 80 tooth specimens were prepared, 10 in each of 8 sample groups. Each proximal root surface was standardized with 600A grit silicone carbide paper and polished with either waxed dental floss, Superfloss, wood or plastic interdental cleaners, using alkali aluminum silicate polishing paste. All specimens were mounted on a flossing machine and polished with 10 or 20 strokes. Before and after polishing, measurements were recorded with the Surfanalyzer 150 System to produce profile and average roughness tracings. Average maximum peak heights, mean number of peaks, and mean average roughness values were calculated from the tracings. The data were analyzed statistically by paired t-test and Student t-test. No significant mean differences were found between the number of strokes used. No significant differences were found for waxed dental floss in relation to the values analyzed. Significant differences were found for maximum peak heights for Superfloss following 20 strokes of polishing. However, no significant differences were found for Superfloss for mean number of peaks and average roughness. Significant differences were found for average roughness values, maximum peak heights, and mean number of peaks for the wood and plastic interdental cleaners. It was concluded that root surface roughness increased significantly with the use of wood and plastic interdental cleaners but not with waxed dental floss or Superfloss
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