Background: Hydrocalix is an uncommon condition that typically is treated with percutaneous dilation of the stenotic infundibulum. Ureteroscopy has the advantage of minimizing invasiveness. Methods: We reviewed our experience with 12 retrograde ureteroscopies for hydrocalix in 10 patients. Results: Access to the hydrocalix could not be achieved in one. Of the remaining 11, the original infundibulum was dilated in all but one, in whom neoinfundibulotomy was performed with a laser. The laser was used in eight cases, balloon dilation with cautery in two, and cautery alone in one. Of the seven hydrocalices bearing stones, four were rendered stone free. Immediate symptomatic success was achieved after 6 of the 11 evaluable procedures (one patient was lost to follow-up after a technically successful procedure). Of the five symptomatic failures, three went on to additional treatment (one ureteroscopy and two percutaneous), one elected against treatment despite recurrence of stenosis, and one had persistent pain owing to stones even though the hydrocalix was cured. Of the six symptomatic successes, three were without symptoms at a mean 25 months of follow-up, two have had recurrences necessitating additional treatment (both percutaneous) a mean of 51 months later, and one did not have adequate imaging follow-up. Conclusion: Ureteroscopy for hydrocalix achieved technical success in most patients, but relief of symptoms followed only about half of the procedures. A trial of ureteroscopy does not preclude subsequent success with a percutaneous approach. Ureteroscopy is a reasonable option for hydrocalix for patients who wish to avoid percutaneous surgery
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