Purpose: To perform an open-label, randomized, controlled trial comparing treatment with doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (ABVD) with two multidrug regimens (MDRs) for advanced Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL). <br/>Patients and Methods: Eight hundred seven patients with advanced HL (stage III to IV, or earlier stage with systemic symptoms or bulky disease) were randomly assigned between ABVD and MDR specified before randomization as alternating chlorambucil, vinblastine, procarbazine, and prednisolone (ChlVPP) with prednisolone, doxorubicin, bleomycin, vincristine, and etoposide (PABIOE), or hybrid ChlVPP/etoposide, vincristine, and doxorubicin (EVA). Radiotherapy was planned for incomplete response or initial bulk disease. <br/>Results: At 52 months median follow-up, 212 event-free survival (EFS) events (disease progression or any death) were reported. In the primary comparison, at 3 years EFS was 75% (95% CI, 71% to 79%) for ABVD and 75% (95% CI, 70% to 79%) for MDRs (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.05; 95% CI, 0.8 to 1.37; HR more than 1.0 favors ABVD). The 3-year overall survival (OS) rates were 90% (95% CI, 87% to 93%) in patients allocated ABVD and 88% (95% CI, 84% to 91%) in patients allocated MDRs (HR = 1.22; 95% CI, 0.84 to 1.77). Patients receiving MDRs experienced more grade 3/4 infection, mucositis, and neuropathy. One occurrence of myelodysplastic syndrome was reported, but no acute leukemia was reported. When the two MDRs are compared separately with ABVD, neither the alternating nor the hybrid regimen showed a statistically significant difference from ABVD for EFS or OS. Subgroup analysis suggested that MDRs may be associated with poorer outcomes in older patients (heterogeneity test of OS older or younger than 45 years, P = .020). <br/>Conclusion: There was no evidence of significant difference in EFS or OS between ABVD and MDRs in the trial overall or if the two MDR versus ABVD comparisons are considered separately. ABVD remains the standard for treatment of advanced HL
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