This paper examines the impact of rural-urban migration on under-two mortality in India, using data from the 1992/93 Indian National Family Health Survey. Multilevel logistic models are fitted for mortality in three age groups: neonatal, early post-neonatal, and late post-neonatal and toddler. Migration status was not a significant determinant of mortality in any of the three age groups. Further analysis shows that a relationship between migration status and mortality exists when socioeconomic and health utilization variables are omitted from the models. <br/><br/>The relationship between migration and mortality is thus explained by differences in socioeconomic status and use of health services between rural-urban migrant and nonmigrant groups. The selectivity of rural-urban migrants on socioeconomic characteristics creates mortality differentials between rural-urban migrants and rural non-migrants. Problems faced by migrants in assimilating into urban societies create mortality differentials between rural-urban migrants and urban non-migrants. These results highlight the need to target migrants in the provision of health services, and demonstrate that rural areas continue to have the highest levels of infant-child mortality. Further research is needed to understand the health care needs of rural-urban migrants in order to inform the provision of appropriate health care.<br/
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