Properties of central stars of planetary nebulae with distances in


Context. We have compiled a catalogue of central stars of planetary nebulae (CSPN) with reliable distances and positions obtained from Gaia Data Release 2 (DR2) astrometry. Distances derived from parallaxes allow us to analyse the galactic distribution and estimate other parameters such as sizes, kinematical ages, bolometric magnitudes, and luminosities. Aims. Our objective is to analyse the information regarding distances together with other available literature data about photometric properties, nebular kinematics, and stellar effective temperatures to throw new light on this rapid and rather unknown evolutionary phase. We seek to understand how Gaia distances compare with other indirect methods commonly used and, in particular, with those derived from non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) models; how many planetary nebulae (PNe) populate the Galaxy; and how are they spatially distributed. We also aim to comprehend their intrinsic luminosities, range of physical sizes of the nebulae; how to derive the values for their kinematical ages; and whether those ages are compatible with those derived from evolutionary models. Methods. We considered all PNe listed in catalogues from different authors and in Hong Kong/AAO/Strasbourg/Hα (HASH) database. By X-matching their positions with Gaia DR2 astrometry we were able to identify 1571 objects in Gaia second archive, for which we assumed distances calculated upon a Bayesian statistical approach. From those objects, we selected a sample of PNe with good quality parallax measurements and distance derivations, we which refer to as our Golden Astrometry PNe sample (GAPN), and obtained literature values of their apparent sizes, radial and expansion velocities, visual magnitudes, interstellar reddening, and effective temperatures. Results. We found that the distances derived from DR2 parallaxes compare well with previous astrometric derivations of the United States Naval Observatory and Hubble Space Telescope, but that distances inferred from non-LTE model fitting are overestimated and need to be carefully reviewed. From literature apparent sizes, we calculated the physical radii for a subsample of nebulae that we used to derive the so-called kinematical ages, taking into account literature expansion velocities. Luminosities calculated with DR2 distances were combined with literature central stars Teff values in a Hertzsprung–Russell (HR) diagram to infer information on the evolutionary status of the nebulae. We compared their positions with updated evolutionary tracks finding a rather consistent picture. Stars with the smallest associated nebular radii are located in the flat luminosity region of the HR diagram, while those with the largest radii correspond to objects in a later stage, getting dimmer on their way to become a white dwarf. Finally, we commented on the completeness of our catalogue and calculated an approximate value for the total number of PNe in the Galaxy

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EDP Sciences OAI-PMH repository (1.2.0)

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This paper was published in EDP Sciences OAI-PMH repository (1.2.0).

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