An explorative research of gender preference in Taiwan: from perspectives of social class and marital status

Abstract

國內研究顯示,勞力市場中女性薪資、升遷與職場文化依舊存在性別歧視。本研究以多元交錯性的觀點,探討目標人物性別、社會階級與婚姻狀態對評估者評估的影響;檢視人們是否較偏好男性,且這樣的性別偏好是否特別針對「低社會階級」與「適婚齡未婚狀態」女性。以台灣北部公立年輕單身大學生為研究對象,進行兩個實驗,針對目標人物的專業職能與人際特質進行評估。實驗一請大學生依據研究者指定婚姻狀態與性別聯想一位目標人物,並請其評估該目標人物的人格特質與專業職能。結果發現參與者對適婚齡單身男性的評估最低。不過,由於自由聯想法無法控制目標人物的社會階級,實驗二由研究者提供文章作者特定的社會階級、婚姻狀態及性別,請大學生閱讀其文章後,評估作者的人格特質與專業職能。結果顯示社會階級對大學生評估的影響,當目標人物為低社會階級時,大學生較偏好男性;對高社會階級的男女性則無評估差異。不過,大學生意外地偏好適婚齡單身者而非已婚者,這可能是因為本研究的大學生評估者不認可婚姻在人生中的必要性,將適婚齡單身目標人物視為內團體,因為偏好內團體,而展現對適齡單身目標人物的偏好。同時,男性大學生認為男性目標人物,較女性目標人物來的專業職能與溫暖助人。最後,研究發現兩性平權發展信念越低的評估者,越顯現對男性的評估偏好。本研究藉由釐清對女性目標人物不利的評估因素提出建議,期許兩性在生活與職場的發展能有更均等發展的機會。Research in Taiwan suggests that gender preference in favor of men limits women to fewer promotion opportunities and lower wage in labor force market. According to the perspective of intersectionality, I investigated whether target sex, social class, and marital status affect evaluations of the targets. In particular, I examined whether people favor men against women, especially against women of “low social class” and “single.” Recruiting young and single college students in Taipei, I conducted two experiments to investigate how target persons’ sex, social class, and marital status might affect participants’ evaluations of the target persons’ professional competencies and interpersonal traits. In the first experiment, participants were asked to think about a specific target person with assigned sex and marital status. Then, they were told to evaluate the target person’s traits reflecting professional competence and interpersonal skills. Unexpectedly, the results showed that college students favored single males the least. The unexpected finding may be due to that participants thought about male or female target persons with different social classes. In the second experiment, participants rated target persons whose sex, marital status, and social class were manipulated by the experimenter. As predicted, participants preferred males over females, which were qualified by target persons’ social class. Participants favored men of low social class, compared to women of low social class. There was no gender preference when evaluating people of high social class. Unexpectedly, participants preferred singles over married people, perhaps due to their weak support of the necessity of marriage. The finding can be explained by an ingroup bias, a preference shown for people classified to the same group. That is, because participants were singles, they might view single targets as ingroup members and expressed a preference toward own ingroup members. Furthermore, male participants preferred male targets, rating them to be more professional, warmer, and more caring than female targets. Participants who had more traditional gender role attitudes would display stronger gender preference in favor of men. Implications of these findings are discussed

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Last time updated on 10/04/2020

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