China’s security strategy for ASEAN after the Cold War

Abstract

冷戰的終結對於東南亞地區的國際局勢和政治、經濟、安全環境都產生了深遠影響。面對美、日、俄、印度與中共等大國勢力在東南亞的互動與交織影響,東協除積極實行大國平衡戰略,以達成大國間相互制約與權力平衡,確維東南亞地區穩定安全,並藉此提升東協在區域政治影響力與安全之地位。 中共與東協間的經貿關係隨著1980年代後彼此政治關係解凍,經濟與貿易之合作發展亦隨之突飛猛進。雙方藉由區域經濟合作與經濟全球化潮流,並藉由各種的經貿優惠安排來獲致區域經濟發展空間。在冷戰後中共與東協經貿關係日益密切,與經濟互賴程度漸增觀之,中共對東南亞地區穩定與影響力不可小覷。 而中共為拓展其影響力,除向周邊國家釋放善意,積極與東協互動,圖能提升中國的國際形象與邁向大國地位。積極運用東協區域論壇來促進對話合作、維護地區和平,並發展新安全觀以擺脫冷戰思維,促進該區域合作互利與和平發展。 就歷史言,領土爭議一直是中共與鄰國衝突隱憂,然而中共分別在1995年和2002年制定了南海行為準則和宣言,主張「擱置爭議,共同開發」舉措,除了是藉此方式迴避主權問題,其在主權與領土問題之態度是難以妥協的。雖目前中共軍事能力凸顯渠具備大國之實力。而以亞太各國的軍備水準現狀衡量,中共當前國防現代化是以嚇阻為主,其目的除嚇阻鄰近諸國對南中國海染指意圖,並維持南中國海已成中共領域現狀。然就亞洲觀點來看,中共國防武力之現代發展與壯大,對東協各國之疑懼與區域安全維持仍不容忽視。朝向多極體系發展過程,促使該區域政治、經濟與安全情勢日益重要。 中共之所以與東協積極開展廣泛合作,其思維仍是由國家整體戰略與國家利益出發。藉與東協的各項合作與關係發展,謀求國家生存與領土完整,進而拓展並維護其經濟利益。此外,在中共積極作為下,與東協多項合作仍須透過其各成員國之協調而進行,凸顯出國家仍是雙邊互動的主角,也驗證了現實主義所強,即使國際社會中有國際組織的存在,國家仍舊是主要行為者。在理論上,中共與東協在促進合作互利時,較能契合新自由制度主義的觀念,但若以中共對東協的政策目標言,則屬以國家利益、權力結構及平衡等現實主義考量來推動政策。It has been a deep impact on international situation and politics, economy, and national security of Southeast Asia after the end of cold war. ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) not only puts strategy of balance into practice to reach mutual condition and the power of balance between big powers but makes sure the regional stability of Southeast Asia and puts ASEAN to be in an advantageous position on regional political influence and security. Along with the thaw of politic and economic relation between China and ASEAN, the cooperation of economy and trade development is also immediately advanced by leaps and bounds. Thanks to trend of the economic globalization, both parties develop regional economy by trading preferential agreements. To promote international image and become a big power, and to shed away the ideal of the cold war, in the hope of develop a new idea about security, China has been interacting with ASEAN countries. Furthermore, they try to have peaceful dialogues to bring regional peace and development. From a historical perspective, territory dispute has been a conflict of underlying concerns between China and Southeast countries. However, China set South China Sea Code of Conduct in 1995 and 2002, which claimed that “leave aside the dispute of sovereignty and jointly develop this region” to fudge sovereignty problem which is awkward. What is more, China develops armament not only to threaten Southeast countries but also to declare South China Seat is part of China. In addition, from Asia’s point of view, it can not be emphasized too much, on the ground that China develops national defense. As a result, it is becoming important to develop multi-polar system to make stable on politics, economy, and security in Asia. The reason why China starts cooperating with ASEAN is that it intends to maintain national strategies and national interests. Moreover, it further seeks nation’s well-being, fullness of territory, and economic benefit. Even if there are international organizations in international community, a nation is still a key role in bilateral agreement according to realism, seeking that most of the negotiation is not through ASEAN but among countries. Theoretically, Neo-liberal institutionalism can account for the reason that China collaborates with ASEAN in economy. On the other hand, in the eyes of politics, it is an integrated consideration to wheel and deal strategies for national interests, power equalization based on realism

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Last time updated on 10/04/2020

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