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Are dogs with clinical leishmaniosis co-infected with other vector-borne zoonotic and non-zoonotic pathogens?

By Marta Baxarias Canals

Abstract

Introduction: Canine leishmaniosis (CanL) due to Leishmania infantum is a zoonotic protozoan disease endemic in Spain, where other vector-borne pathogens are quite common (Rickettsia conorii, Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma spp, Hepatozoon canis, Babesia spp). Dogs are considered the main peridomestic reservoir for L. infantum infection and its clinical manifestation can vary from a total absence of clinical signs and clinicopathological abnormalities to a severe fatal clinical illness. Furthermore, there is evidence that other vector-borne organisms might affect the severity of CanL or mimic its clinical signs and/or clinicopathological abnormalities. The aim of this study was to determine co-infections with other vector-borne pathogens based on serological and molecular techniques in dogs with clinical leishmaniosis living in the Mediterranean basin and to associate them with clinical signs and clinicopathological abnormalities as well as disease severity. Materials and methods: Sixty-two dogs with clinical leishmaniosis and sixteen apparently healthy dogs were tested for Rickettsia conorii, Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum by the immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and for Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma spp, Hepatozoon spp. and Babesia spp. by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: Among the dogs examined by IFAT, the seroprevalences were: 69.3% for R. conorii, 57.3% for E. canis and 44.0% for A. phagocytophilum; while the prevalences found by PCR were: 7.9% for E. canis/Anaplasma, 2.6% for Anaplasma platys and 1.3% for H. canis. Statistical association was found between dogs with clinical leishmaniosis and seroreactivity to R. conorii antigen (P = 0.025; OR = 4.09) and A. phagocytophilum antigen (P = 0.002; OR = 14.34) and being positive to more than one serological or molecular tests (co-infections) (P = 0.013) when compared with healthy dogs. Interestingly, a statistical association was found between the presence of R. conorii, E. canis and A. phagocytophilum antibodies in sick dogs and some clinicopathological abnormalities such as a decrease of albumin and albumin/globulin ratio associated to the presence of R. conorii, A. phagocytophilum and E. canis high antibody titers, and an increase in serum globulins associated to the presence of A. phagocytophilum and E. canis high antibody titers. Furthermore, seroreactivity with A. phagocytophilum antigens was statistically associated with LeishVet clinical stages III and IV. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that dogs with clinical leishmaniosis from the Barcelona and Tarragona area have a higher rate of co-infections with other vector-borne pathogens when compared with healthy controls. Furthermore, positivity to other vector-borne pathogens was associated with more pronounced clinicopathological abnormalities as well as disease severity with canine clinical leishmaniosis

Topics: Leishmaniosi, Gossos, 619 - VeterinĂ ria
Year: 2017
OAI identifier: oai:recercat.cat:2072/304793
Provided by: RECERCAT
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