In this paper we present a transient, fully two-phase, non-isothermal model of carbon monoxide poisoning and oxygen bleeding in the membrane<br/>electrode assembly of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell. The model includes a detailed description of mass, heat and charge transport, chemisorption,<br/>electrochemical oxidation and heterogeneous catalysis (when oxygen is introduced). Example simulation results demonstrate the ability of the<br/>model to qualitatively capture the fundamental features of the poisoning process and the extent of poisoning with respect to channel temperature<br/>and concentration. Further examples show how the multi-step kinetics can interact with other physical phenomena such as liquid-water flooding,<br/>particularly in the anode. Carbon monoxide pulsing is simulated to demonstrate that the complicated reaction kinetics of oxygen bleeding can<br/>be captured and even predicted. It is shown that variations in the channel temperature have a convoluted effect on bleeding, and that trends in<br/>performance on relatively short time scales can be the precise opposite of the trends observed at steady state. We incorporate a bi-functional<br/>mechanism for carbon monoxide oxidation on platinum–ruthenium catalysts, demonstrating the marked reduction in the extent of poisoning, the<br/>effect of variations in the platinum–ruthenium ratio and the influence of temperature. Finally, we discuss the implications of the results, extensions<br/>to the model and possible avenues for experimental work
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