Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Does anticipation help or hinder performance in a subsequent speech?

By Mike Brown and Lusia Stopa


This study examined the effects of anticipatory processing on a subsequent speech in high and low socially anxious participants. Forty participants (n = 20 in each group) gave two speeches, one after no anticipatory processing and one after 10-minutes of anticipatory processing. In anticipatory processing, high socially anxious participants were more anxious, and experienced more negative and unhelpful self-images than low socially anxious participants did. However, both groups rated memories of past speeches as having a somewhat helpful effect on their speech preparation. High socially anxious participants tended to use the observer perspective more in the anticipated speech, while, in the unanticipated speech, they might have been switching between observer and field perspectives. Low socially anxious participants tended to use the field perspective in both speeches. High and low socially anxious participants reported better speech performances after the anticipated, compared to after the unanticipated speech. Results suggest that anticipatory processing may have both positive and negative effects on socially anxious individuals' cognitive processing and performance before and during a speech

Topics: BF
OAI identifier:
Provided by: e-Prints Soton

Suggested articles


  1. (1983). A brief version of the fear of negative evaluation scale.
  2. (1995). A cognitive model of social phobia. In
  3. (2001). A cognitive perspective on social phobia. In
  4. (1997). A cognitive-behavioural model of anxiety in social phobia.
  5. (1988). An inventory for measuring clinical anxiety: psychometric properties.
  6. (2003). Anticipatory processing in social anxiety: two pilot studies.
  7. (2004). Anticipatory processing in social anxiety.
  8. (2000). Cognitive processes in social anxiety: the effects of self-focus, rumination, and anticipatory processing.
  9. (1993). Cognitive processes in social phobia.
  10. (2001). Development and validation of the situational self-awareness scale.
  11. (1992). Discrepancy between self and observer ratings of performance in social phobics.
  12. Field,A.P.andMorgan,J.(2004).Post-eventprocessingandtheretrievalofautobiographicalmemories in socially anxious individuals.
  13. (1998). How do I look with my mind’s eye: perspective taking in social phobic imagery.
  14. M a t t i c k ,R .P .a n dC l a r k ,J .C .(1989). Development and Validation of Measures of Social Phobia Scrutiny Fear and Social Interaction Anxiety.
  15. (1993). Manual of the Beck Anxiety Inventory.
  16. (1969). Measurement of social-evaluative anxiety.
  17. (2000). Post-event processing in social anxiety.
  18. (1998). Seeing yourself through others’ eyes: a study of spontaneously occurring images in social phobia.
  19. (1998). Social phobia: effects of external attention on anxiety, negative beliefs, and perspective taking.
  20. (2002). The effect of situational structure on the social performance of socially anxious and non-anxious individuals.
  21. (2003). The observer perspective: effects on social anxiety and performance.
  22. (1993). The Social Cognitions Questionnaire.

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.