Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

The spotlight effect and the illusion of transparency in social anxiety

By Michael A. Brown and Lusia Stopa

Abstract

[Clark, D. M., & Wells, A. (1995). A cognitive model of social phobia. In: R. G. Heimberg, M. R. Liebowitz, D. A. Hope, & F. R. Schneier (Eds.), Social phobia: diagnosis, assessment, and treatment (pp. 69–93). New York: Guildford Press] cognitive model of social phobia suggests that both public and private sources of information contribute to the construction of the self as a social object, which is thought to maintain the disorder. This study used two concepts developed in social psychology that might help to explain the processes that contribute to the development of this constructed self. These two concepts are the spotlight effect [Gilovich, T., Medvec, V. H., & Savitsky, K. (2000). The spotlight effect in social judgment: an egocentric bias in estimates of the salience of one’s own actions and appearance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78(2), 211–222] and the illusion of transparency [Gilovich, T., Medvec, V. H., & Savitsky, K. (1998). The Illusion of transparency: biased assessments of others’ ability to read one’s own emotional states. Journal of personality and social psychology, 75(2), 332–346]. Participants performed a memory task under either a low or a high social-evaluative condition. In the high social-evaluative condition, participants reported higher levels of the spotlight effect and more negative evaluation of task performance, compared to participants in the low social-evaluative condition. There were no differences between the two conditions in levels of the illusion of transparency. Surprisingly, however, in the low socialevaluative condition, participants reported higher levels of the illusion of transparency than the spotlight effect, whereas, in the high social-evaluative condition, they reported the opposite. Results suggest that the spotlight effect may be specific to social-evaluative concerns, whereas, the illusion of transparency may represent more general features of social anxiety concerns. Implications of the results for Clark and Wells’ cognitive model of social phobia model are discussed

Topics: BF
Year: 2007
OAI identifier: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:45092
Provided by: e-Prints Soton

Suggested articles

Citations

  1. (1983). A brief version of the fear of negative evaluation scale.
  2. (2001). A cognitive perspective on social phobia. In:
  3. (1997). A cognitive-behavioral model of anxiety in social phobia.
  4. (2000). American Psychiatric Association.
  5. (2001). An integrated cognitive-behavioral model of social anxiety. In:
  6. (2000). anxiety and self-impression: cognitivepreparation enhances the beneficial effects of video feedback following a stressful social task.
  7. (1996). Beck depression inventory-second edition manual.
  8. (2006). Brief fear of negative evaluation scale-revised. Depression and Anxiety,
  9. (2000). Cognitive processes in social anxiety: the effects of self-focus, rumination and anticipatory processing.
  10. (1993). Cognitive processes in social phobia.
  11. (1993). Do people know how others view them? An empirical and theoretical account.
  12. (1996). Effects of focus of attention on social phobics’ anxiety and social performance.
  13. (2001). Effects of varying levels of anxiety within social situations: Relationships to memory perspective and attributions in social phobia.
  14. (2005). Empirical validation and psychometric evaluation of the brief fear of negative evaluation scale in patients with social anxiety disorder.
  15. (2000). Factor structure of the beck depression inventory-second edition in a student sample.
  16. (2004). Factor structure, concurrent validity, and internal consistency of the beck depression inventory-second edition in a sample of college students.
  17. (1999). How do I appear to others? Social anxiety and processing of the observable self.
  18. (1983). Is increased arousal in social anxiety noticed by others?
  19. (1969). Measurement of social-evaluative anxiety.
  20. (2004). More information from fewer questions: the factor structure and item properties of the original and brief fear of negative evaluation scale.
  21. (1999). observer perspective:biasedimageryin socialphobia, agoraphobia,and blood/ injury phobia.
  22. (2004). Post-event rumination and negative self-appraisal in social phobia before and after treatment.
  23. (2006). Public and private self-awareness.
  24. (2007). Public and private self-consciousness and social phobia.
  25. (1999). Self-awareness and feeling transparent: failing to suppress one’s self.
  26. (1980). Self-consciousness and social anxiety.
  27. (2000). Self-focused attention and social anxiety in social phobics and normal controls.
  28. (2000). Self-focused attention before and after treatment of social phobia.
  29. (1992). selfand observer ratingsof performance in socialphobics.Journal of Abnormal Psychology,
  30. (1995). Social phobia and social appraisal in successful and unsuccessful interactions.
  31. (2002). The causal role of self-awareness in blushing-anxious, socially-anxious, and social phobic individuals.
  32. (2003). The illusion of transparency and the alleviation of speech anxiety.
  33. (1998). The Illusion of transparency: biased assessments of others’ ability to read one’s own emotional states.
  34. (2006). The psychometric properties of the brief fear of negative evaluation scale.
  35. (2005). The validity of the brief version of the fear of negative evaluation scale.
  36. V.H.,&Savitsky,K.(2000).Thespotlighteffectinsocialjudgment:anegocentricbiasinestimates of the salience of one’s own actions and appearance.

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.