This report is the third in a series of five, designed to investigate the detection of<br/>targets buried in saturated sediment, primarily through acoustical or acoustics-related<br/>methods. Although steel targets are included for comparison, the major interest is in<br/>targets (polyethylene cylinders and optical fibres) which have a poor acoustic<br/>impedance mismatch with the host sediment. This particular report provides a brief<br/>historical overview of sediment propagation models has been presented. Two theories<br/>have been covered: the Biot-Stoll theory; and wave scattering from random rough<br/>surfaces. The debate surrounding the observations of, so-called, anomalous acoustic<br/>penetration has also been discussed.<br/>This series of reports is written in support of the article “The detection by sonar of<br/>difficult targets (including centimetre-scale plastic objects and optical fibres) buried<br/>in saturated sediment” by T G Leighton and R C P Evans, written for a Special Issue<br/>of Applied Acoustics which contains articles on the topic of the detection of objects<br/>buried in marine sediment. Further support material can be found at<br/>http://www.isvr.soton.ac.uk/FDAG/uaua/target_in_sand.HTM
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