Spectroscopic techniques that aim to resolve the electronic configuration and local coordination of a central atom by detecting inner-shell radiative decays following photoexcitation using hard X-rays are presented. The experimental setup requires an X-ray spectrometer based on perfect crystal Bragg optics. The possibilities arising from non-resonant (X-Ray Emission Spectroscopy - XES) and resonant excitation (Resonant Inelastic X-Ray Scattering Spectroscopy – RIXSS, High-Energy-Resolution Fluorescence Detected (HERFD) XAS) are discussed when the instrumental energy broadenings of the primary (beamline) monochromator and the crystal spectrometer for x-ray emission detection are on the order of the core hole lifetimes of the intermediate and final electronic states. The small energy bandwidth in the emission detection yields line-sharpened absorption features. In transition metal compounds, electron-electron interactions as well as orbital splittings and fractional population can be revealed. Combination with EXAFS spectroscopy enables to extent the k-range beyond unwanted absorption edges in the sample that limit the EXAFS range in conventional absorption spectroscopy
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