The application of microwave dielectric heating in a range of environment-related heterogeneous catalytic reaction systems has been reviewed. The reactions investigated include the decomposition of hydrogen sulfide, the reduction of sulfur dioxide with methane, the reformation of methane by carbon dioxide, the hydrodesulfurization of thiophene, and the oxidative coupling of methane. The interaction of microwave irradiation with heterogeneous catalytic systems and its consequence for the microwave heating behaviour of catalysts have been examined. The effect/mechanism of microwave dielectric heating on heterogeneous catalytic reaction systems has also been discussed
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