The use of samarium-doped ceria (SDC) electrolytes in SOFCs (solid oxide fuel cells) lowers the open circuit voltage (OCV) below the Nernst voltage (Vth). The OCV is calculated with Wagner’s equation which is included in NernstPlanck equation. Considering the separation of Boltzmann distribution, the fundamental basis of this topic is discussed. A constant voltage loss without leakage currents due to a mixed ionic and electronic conducting (MIEC) dense anode was explained. Only carrier species having sufficient energy to overcome the activation energy can contribute to current conduction, which is determined by incorporating a different constant in the definitions of chemical potential and electrical potential. This difference explains the results using dense MIEC anodes. This topic is not an isolated and minor topic, but of vital importance to electrochemical engineering for the 21st Century
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