Studies regarding seed maturation are important to determine the ideal fruit development stage for harvesting in order to obtain high-quality seeds. Changes in sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seed quality were monitored during seed development in order to identify the stage of maximum quality of the seeds and the optimum harvest date. Fruits harvested from 20 to 75 days after anthesis (DAA) with step of five days were grouped according to maturity stage (green, yellow, red and intense red color outside). Before seed extraction, the fruit weigh, diameter and length were determined. Seed water content, seed dry weight, 1.000-seed weight, germination, first count, speed emergence index, seedling length, accelerated aging and electrical conductivity tests were performed. Mass maturity of the seeds was attained at 75 DAA, when seed water content was 47.3 % and the fruits were red. Sweet pepper seeds with high germination and vigour should be harvested when fruits are completely red outside, at 75 DAA
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