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Aplicação foliar de silício na resistência da soja à ferrugem e na atividade de enzimas de defesa Effect of foliar application of silicon on soybean resistance against soybean rust and on the activity of defense enzymes

By Sandra C. Pereira, Fabrício A. Rodrigues, Vivian Carré-Missio, Maria Goreti A. Oliveira and Laércio Zambolim

Abstract

A ferrugem da soja, causada por Phakopsora pachyrhizi, tem sido controlada pela aplicação de fungicidas devido a indisponibilidade de cultivares resistentes. O silício (Si) tem aumentado a resistência de várias espécies de plantas a patógenos. Assim, este trabalho avaliou o efeito da aplicação foliar desse elemento na severidade da ferrugem e na potencialização da atividade de quitinases, &#946;-1,3-glucanases, peroxidases, polifenoloxidases, lipoxigenases e fenilalanina amônia-liases. Plantas de soja (cultivar MG/BR-46 Conquista) foram pulverizadas com água (controle), silicato de potássio (KSi) (pH 10,5), KSi (pH 5,5) e acibenzolar-S-metílico (ASM) 24 horas antes da inoculação. Não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos para os teores foliares de Si e potássio. A severidade foi significativamente menor em plantas pulverizadas com KSi, independente do pH, e ASM em relação ao controle. O ASM reduziu significativamente a severidade em 65,5% em relação ao controle sem diferença significativa do ASM para a aplicação de KSi pH 5,5. Aplicação de KSi, independente do pH, também reduziu a severidade. Não houve potencialização da atividade das enzimas estudadas pela aplicação de KSi, independente do pH, e do ASM, embora houve redução da severidade em relação ao controle, o que poderia ser explicado pelo possível efeito desses produtos sobre o fungo.<br>Soybean rust, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, has been controlled by fungicide application due to the absence of resistant cultivars. Silicon (Si) has increased the resistance of many plant species to pathogens. Therefore, this study evaluated the effect of foliar application of this element on rust severity and if it can potentiate the activity of chitinases, &#946;-1,3-glucanases, peroxidases, polyphenoloxidases, lipoxygenases, and phenylalanine ammonia-lyases. Soybean plants (cultivar "MG/BR-46 Conquista") were sprayed with water (control), potassium silicate (KSi) (pH 10.5), KSi (pH 5.5), and acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM) 24 hours before inoculation. There was no significant difference among the treatments for content of Si and potassium in leaf tissue. Rust severity was significantly lower on plants sprayed with KSi, regardless of pH, and ASM compared to plants from control treatment. The ASM significantly decreased severity by 65.5% in comparison to control; however, there was no significant difference from ASM to KSi pH 5.5 treatment. Application of KSi, regardless of the pH, also reduced severity. There was no potentiation of the enzymes studied with KSi, regardless of pH and of ASM, even though there was severity reduction compared to the control treatment. This could be explained by the possible effect of these products on the fungus

Topics: Phakopsora pachyrhizi, mecanismo de defesa, nutrição mineral, Phakopsora pachyrhizi, mechanism of host defense, mineral nutrition, LCC:Plant culture, LCC:SB1-1110, LCC:Agriculture, LCC:S, DOAJ:Plant Sciences, DOAJ:Agriculture and Food Sciences
Publisher: Sociedade Brasileira de Fitopatologia
Year: 2009
DOI identifier: 10.1590/S1982-56762009000300005
OAI identifier: oai:doaj.org/article:18395123706942109ae188e9678f5008
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