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Lesiones Pancreáticas en Lechones Destetados Inducidas por Ingestión de Alimento Contaminado con 100 ppb de Aflatoxina B1

By Elías J Sogbe M, Carmen T Díaz, Elías Ascanio, Vitelio Utrera, Héctor Zerpa and Oneyda J Ramírez

Abstract

La contaminación de alimentos por hongos y micotoxinas ocurre en todas partes del mundo. La ingesta de micotoxinas, particularmente Aflatoxina B1 (AFB1) produce gran variedad de signos y daños orgánicos dependiendo de la edad, estado nutricional, dosis y duración de la exposición. La exposición crónica a bajas concentraciones de micotoxinas puede incrementar la susceptibilidad a adquirir otras enfermedades, pérdida de peso e ictericia; otros autores refieren daño hepático y renal. Existen escasas publicaciones reportando lesiones pancreáticas cuando se administran en el alimento100 ppb o niveles menores de AFB1 en lechones destetados. En Venezuela no existen reportes de daño pancreático ocasionado por ingesta de niveles considerados bajos de AFB1 en el alimento. El presente trabajo se realizó en 16 lechones destetados de 4 semanas de edad,  raza Yorkshire, divididos en dos grupos A: Control, B: tratados con alimento contaminado con 100 ppb de AFB1, durante 4 semanas se evaluaron signos clínicos, se tomaron mues tras de sangre para estudio enzimológico pancreático y además se realizaron estudios  macroscópicos e histopatológicos. El estudio macroscópico del páncreas mostró alteraciones significativas como focos de hemorragia y necrosis, el estudio histopatológico mostró signos de daño hepático: vacuolización difusa de hepatocitos y áreas de necrosis unicelular con proliferación ductal biliar para el final de la semana 4 en el grupo B, así como también pancreatitis necrotizante con hemorragia y proceso inflamatorio, mientras el Grupo Control no mostró lesiones. Por otra parte, las enzimas reveladoras de daño pancreático se mostraron incrementadas en el grupo B, mientras  el Grupo A (Control) no presentó incremento de éstas. Este ensayo permite concluir que el uso de alimento contaminado con 100 ppb de AFB1 puede explicar los daños pancreáticos descritos.<br>The contamination of feed by fungi and mycotoxins happens anywhere in the World. The ingestion of mycotoxins particularly AFB1 by swines produce a great variety of clinical signs and organic injuries depending on the age, nutritional state, dose and duration of the exposition. The chronic exposition to low concentration can increase the susceptibility to other diseases, loss of weight, and icterus. Other researchers refer hepatic and kidney damage. There are few publications reporting pancreatic lesions when 100 ppb of AFB1 had been administered to weaned piglets. In Venezuela there are no previous reports of its pancreatic damage by AFB1considered low levels in contaminated feeds. The present paper reports cases showing gross, microscopic aspects and pancreatic enzyme alterations in weaned piglets fed with 100 ppb AFB1 contaminated feed. 16  four weeks old weaned Yorkshire piglets of both sexes were used. The study was conducted in two groups (A, B). Group A as control, Group B fed on 100 ppb of AFB1. The trial was completed in four weeks. Piglets were euthanized two of each group by the end of every week. Clinical signs were evaluated, blood samples were taken and pancreatic enzimology studies were performed, in addition  gross and histopathologic studies were performed. Gross findings showed in Group B: hemorrhage and necrotic foci in pancreas. Histopathologic findings showed early signed of liver damage as diffuse hepatic vacuolization and areas of unicellular necrosis and ductal biliar proliferation  by the end of week 4 in the Group B., as well as focal necrotizing pancreatitis with hemorrhage and inflammatory process, while Group A ( Control ) showed no pancreatic lesions. On the other hand the pancreatic enzymes were increased only in group B. This trial allows to conclude that the use of 100 ppb AFB1 contaminated feed might explain the pancreatic damage above described

Topics: Cerdos, destete, consumo de piensos, aflatoxinas, Aragua, Swine, weaning, feed consumption, aflatoxins, Aragua, LCC:Animal culture, LCC:SF1-1100, LCC:Agriculture, LCC:S, DOAJ:Animal Sciences, DOAJ:Agriculture and Food Sciences
Publisher: Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias. Universidad Central de Venezuela.
Year: 2005
OAI identifier: oai:doaj.org/article:8b046cb306e64fbf9d344a8e4154ae49
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