Two dimensions of state transformation often analysed separately can be identified as vertical authority shifts between different levels of government and horizontal authority transfers between state and non-state domains. This article firstly reviews three existing approaches that highlight links between vertical and horizontal state transformation: multi-level governance, policy networks and sections of the rescaling literature. However, these approaches do not yet provide a framework sufficient to enable a more thorough and detailed examination of the relationship between these two dimensions. The article thus proceeds to develop a multifaceted framework in order to facilitate further research into this relationship, a necessity if we are to understand more fully whether vertical and horizontal authority shifts complement or contradict one another within the transformation of the state's role in governing society and economy
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