Phosphorus transformation in poultry litter and litter-treated Oxisol of Brazil assessed by 31P-NMR and wet chemical fractionation


Large quantities of poultry litter are being produced in Brazil, which contain appreciable amounts of phosphorus (P) that could be of environmental concern. To assess the immediate environmental threat, five poultry litters composed of diverse bedding material were incubated for 43 days under greenhouse conditions. The litters consisted of: coffee bean husk (CH); wood chips (WC); rice husk (RH); ground corn cobs (CC) and ground napier grass (NG) (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.), in which the change in forms of soluble P was evaluated using 31P NMR spectroscopy. On average, 80.2 and 19.8 % of the total P in the extract, respectively, accounted for the inorganic and organic forms before incubation and 48 % of the organic P was mineralized to inorganic P in 43 days of incubation. Wide variation in the organic P mineralization rate (from 82 % -WC to 4 % - NG) was observed among litters. Inorganic orthophosphate (99.9 %) and pyrophosphate (0.1 %) were the only inorganic P forms, whereas the organic P forms orthophosphate monoesters (76.3 %) and diester (23.7 %) were detected. Diester P compounds were mineralized almost completely in all litters, except in the CH litter, within the incubation period. Pyrophosphates contributed with less than 0.5% and remained unaltered during the incubation period. Wood-chip litter had a higher organic P (40 %) content and a higher diester: monoester ratio; it was therefore mineralized rapidly, within the first 15 days, achieving steady state by the 29th day. Distinct mineralization patterns were observed in the litter when incubated with a clayey Oxisol. The substantial decrease observed in the organic P fraction (Po) of the litter types followed the order: CH (45 %) > CC (25 %) > RH (13 %) ≈ NG (12 %) > WC (5 %), whereas the Pi fraction increased. Incubation of RH litter in soil slowed down the mineralization of organic P

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oaioai:doaj.org/article:249df5776ed54c138a01c8bf0dd65f7fLast time updated on 12/18/2014

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