Typology of the antegonial notch in the human mandible
AbstractBackground: Surgical treatment for serious malocclusions and fractures of the organ of mastication is a golden standard in medicine. Procedures performed on the mandible require detailed knowledge of the anatomy of the organ. Antegonial notching constitutes a serious technical challenge for surgeons. Therefore, a detailed anatomical description of this structure, which is the subject of this paper, is essential.
Materials and methods: We analysed 251 human Caucasian mandibles of identified sex and took measurements of all sections describing the mandibular antegonial notch. Depending on the proportion between sections we classified the shape of the antegonial notch into three types. The surface area of the notch was calculated. We analysed the dimorphic and bilateral differences for each of the three types of notch. We used variance analysis for the assessment of statistical difference.
Results: The analysis revealed that in both men and women, regardless of body side, the type 3 antegonial notch was the most frequent. Type 3 occurred with a frequency of between 38% in men on the right side and 55.9% in women on the left side of the body. Type 1 was the least frequent. Dimorphic differences in the presence of individual types of antegonial notch were statistically significant only for the left side of the body. The symmetrical type (type 2) occurred more frequently in men (by 11%) than in women. Type 3 was found more frequently in women (by 10%) than in men. Bilateral differences in men were revealed for the frequencies of types 1 and 3. On the right side type 1 was more frequent (by 8%), and on the left side type 3 was also more frequent (by 8%). The greatest surface area was found for the asymmetrical posterior type (type 1). The smallest surface area was found for the asymmetrical anterior type 3. This difference was statistically significant with respect to the surface area of types 1 and type 2 and found for both sexes for both sides of the body. However, no statistically significant differences were found between the surface areas of types 1 or 2.
Conclusions: Knowledge of the preangular notch anatomy can be useful for surgeons during reconstructive and plastic procedures on the body of the mandible