Relative adrenal insufficiency and hemodynamic status in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery patients. A prospective cohort study


Abstract Background The objectives of this study were to determine the risk factors for relative adrenal insufficiency in cardiopulmonary bypass patients and the impact on postoperative vasopressor requirements. Methods Prospective cohort study on cardiopulmonary bypass patients who received etomidate or not during anesthetic induction. Relative adrenal insufficiency was defined as a rise in serum cortisol ≤ 9 μg/dl after the administration of 250 μg of consyntropin. Plasma cortisol levels were measured preoperatively, immediately before, 30, 60, and 90 minutes after the administration of cosyntropin, and at 24 hours after surgery. Results 120 elective cardiopulmonary bypass patients were included. Relative adrenal insufficiency (Δcortisol ≤9 μg/dl) incidence was 77.5%. 78 patients received etomidate and 69 (88%) of them developed relative adrenal insufficiency, (P P P = 0.04), and at 4 hours after surgery (P = 0.01). Pre and post-test plasma cortisol levels were inversely associated with maximum norepinephrine dose (ρ = -0.22, P = 0.02; ρ = -0.18, P = 0.05; ρ = -0.21, P = 0.02; and ρ = -0.22, P = 0.02, respectively). Conclusions Relative adrenal insufficiency in elective cardiopulmonary bypass patients may induce postoperative vasopressor dependency. Use of etomidate in these patients is a modifiable risk factor for the development of relative adrenal insufficiency that should be avoided.</p

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