Two sets of experiments, categorized as TG–FTIR and Py–GC–FTIR, are employed to investigate the mechanism of the hemicellulose pyrolysis and the formation of main gaseous and bio-oil products. The “sharp mass loss stage” and the corresponding evolution of the volatile products are examined by the TG–FTIR graphs at the heating rate of 3–80 K/min. A pyrolysis unit, composed of fluidized bed reactor, carbon filter, vapour condensing system and gas storage, is employed to investigate the products of the hemicellulose pyrolysis under different temperatures (400–690 °C) at the feeding flow rate of 600 l/h. The effects of temperature on the condensable products are examined thoroughly. The possible routes for the formation of the products are systematically proposed from the primary decomposition of the three types of unit (xylan, O-acetylxylan and 4-O-methylglucuronic acid) and the secondary reactions of the fragments. It is found that the formation of CO is enhanced with elevated temperature, while slight change is observed for the yield of CO2 which is the predominant products in the gaseous mixture.<br/><br/
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