In this research, we consider the planning of community health schemes by non-governmental or faith-based organisations in rural areas of developing countries, from both top-down and ground level viewpoints. We conclude that both types of planning approach are valid and necessary for sustainability of such developments. With top-down planning in mind, we describe our hierarchical models especially designed for location of community health facilities, with objectives pertaining to both efficiency and equity of provision. As an additional case study, we present modelling of the location of a maximal number of self-sustainable primary healthcare workers in a rural region of India
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